David L. McPherson, Professor Communication Disorders and Neuroscience
January 1, 2017 – December 31, 2018
The purpose of the MEG was to mentor students into an active research environment where new neuroimaging techniques were being developed and utilized to describe the auditory system. Approximately 18 undergraduate and graduate students participated in the project. In addition, approximately an additional 38 students were trained, by students from this MEG proposal, in this technique from Physiology and Developmental Biology and Psychology. Results helped define the role of the right hemisphere in language plasticity. Likewise, further protocol development and adjustments to the current protocol have been implemented.
This application proposes to study the neuroimaging of auditory stimuli in 42 young adults. Event related potentials (EEG measures), functional magnetic resonance imaging, and psychophysical measures of response time will be uniquely combined to reconstruct source localization and dipole sources for graded non-linguistic to linguistic auditory stimulation. This will be addressed through the investigation of the relationships between psychophysical measures and neurophysiological measures of neural substrates in the processing of auditory information and the analysis of the spatio-temporal characteristics of the neural substrates during auditory/speech processing (where in the brain and what pathways). Currently, the processing of auditory and speech information is pieced together from individual studies using, independently, the techniques note above. The uniqueness of this proposal is that we will be using all three measures simultaneously in the same participant, thus allowing for both small group analysis and single participant analysis. These observations should lead to the development of, or addition to, theories of auditory/speech processing in the brain, and how linguistic challenges change that processing. Specifically, it is thought that the right hemisphere process auditory information at the perceptional level and the left hemisphere processes information at the cognitive and linguistic level. However, our report on a left temporal craniotomy individual does not support this stereotypical concept. Research from this study should help better primary and secondary processing areas of the brain and the areas that contribute to the plasticity in language intervention.
The academic objectives of this proposal were met and are exemplified by the inclusion of 18 students in the mentoring environment. The students included 14 undergraduate students and four graduate students; hence, the original proposal of four undergraduate students and three graduate students. Four of the undergraduate students subsequently completed their Master of Science degree in Communication Disorders (three students) and one in Neuroscience. All five students continued working in my laboratory and I served as chair of their thesis committee. In addition, one undergraduate student entered Medical School and another student entered a doctoral program in Clinical Psychology. Except for one graduate student, the other three graduate students served as peer mentors to undergraduate students.
Evaluation of the Mentoring Environment
The mentoring environment was structured to prepare the students in basic skills including critical thinking, problem solving, and productive collaborative abilities. The students were continually challenged to solve and design solutions to problems that occurred during this project. Although guidance was given, they would present their solutions and we would model them in the laboratory, discuss effectiveness, and work the solution through to implementation. Thus, problems were not solved for them, but with them as they were challenged. As important as the research itself, the process was the main emphasis of the mentoring project.
List of students who participated and what academic deliverables they have produced, or it is anticipated they will produce:
- Janelle Bailey
- Grace Bentley
- Twayna Coates
- Elizabeth Hyatt
- Caitlin Moizer
- Lauren Nordstrom
- Karen Fletcher
- David Sorensen
- Michael Kamalu
- Jennifer Taylor
- Bethany Collier
- Jordan Isabell
- Allyson Roscher
- Aubrey Hatch
- Spencer Loong
- Brandon Heilberg
- Dana Pierce
- Elizabeth Perry
Bailey JL., McPherson DL, Bigler E., Dromey C., Harris R. Neuroplasticity in the Auditory System Following TBI: Source Localization and MRI. XXIV Biennial IERASG Symposium, Busan, Korea.
Bailey, J., McPherson, D. L., Bigler, E. D., Harris, R. W. Neuroplasticity in a Patient With Anterior Left Temporal Lobe Craniotomy Observed With qEEG. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Denver, Colorado
McPherson, D. L., Perry, L., Harris, R. W., & Dromey, C. D. Scalp distribution of the Mismatch negativity Response to Processing of Vowel Formants. Paper presented at the Third Conference of the Advanced Arab Academy of Audiovestibulogy. Amman, Jordan.
Nordstrom, L. Brain Mapping of the Latency Epochs in a McGurk Effect Paradigm in Music Performance and Visual Arts Majors. Master of Science Thesis, Brigham Young University
Bentley, G. Neurophysiological Correlates of the Critical Bandwidth in the Human Auditory System. Master of Science Thesis, Brigham Young University
Coates, T. Source Localization in Cross Modality Matching of Brightness and Loudness in Young Adults. Master of Science Thesis, Brigham Young University
Hyatt, E. The Right Ear Advantage in Response to Levels of Linguistic Complexity: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. Master of Science Thesis, Brigham Young University
Moizer, C. Semantic and Syntactic Processing in a Patient with Left Temporal Lobe Damage Secondary to Traumatic Brain Injury: An fMRI Study. Master of Science Thesis, Brigham Young University McPherson, D., Harris, R., Sorensen, D. Functional Neuroimaging of the Central Auditory System. Advances in Audiology, Speech Pathology, and Hearing Science. Academic Press.
McPherson, D., Wolak, T., Sorensen, D. Advances in Functional Imaging of the Central Auditory System. XXXV International Evoked Response Biennial Symposium. Warsaw, Poland.
Pierce, D. Duncan, E., Sorensen, D., Kamalub, M., McPherson, D. Mismatch Negativity Event-Related Potential Elicited by Speech Stimuli in Geriatric Patients. Undergraduate Gerontology award for research.
McPherson, Parrish, L., Harris, R., Loudness Matching Function of Normal Hearing Listeners with Noise Masking. World Congress of Audiology, Vancouver, Canada.
McPherson, D., Nordstrom, L., Harris, R., Bigler, E. Brain Mapping of Auditory-Visual Illusions in the McGurk Effect. World Congress of Audiology, Vancouver, Canada.
Description of the results/findings of the project
The neuroimaging using QEEG and fMRI has resulted in a reliable and repeatable protocol. We were able to demonstrate auditory region of interests using a variety of auditory stimuli. Furthermore, we showed that, although the left hemisphere is dominate for language, the right hemisphere can use resources, through training, to duplicate major left hemisphere language function. Also, the results of this project have provided us with some more direction on the development of other protocols and improvement of the existing protocols.
A secondary result has been the increased use of my laboratory and fMRI set-up across campus. For example, AY 2018 has shown collaboration with Professor Michael Brown, Physiology and Developmental Biology, where approximately 25 of his students were trained by us in my laboratory and are completing a joint project. Likewise, Professor Michael Larson, Psychology, and his students have been trained and are using the laboratories facilities as well as, Professor Daniel Kay, Psychology, using the combined QEEG/fMRI for collaborative research. All these students were primarily trained by the students that were part of my project.
Description of how the budget was spent
Seven undergraduate and graduate students were supported by funds from this award. The supply budget was to pay for MRI scans as well as expendable supply replacement. No money was used for activities outside the budget specifications.