Chad D. Jensen, Ph.D., Department of Psychology
Research conducted with adults has demonstrated increased neural response to high calorie food images among sleep-deprived individuals (Benedict et al., 2012). Furthermore, a significant body of research suggests that social stress increases risk for unhealthy food consumption. Research examining the neural underpinnings of the social stress suggests that activation in brain regions implicated in reward and threat processing (e.g., amygdala, striatum) may be activated by social threat while inhibitory control regions (e.g., prefrontal cortex) are less active. This study was designed to examine potential differences in brain responses to peer feedback that reflects succeptibility to social rejection when sleep restricted using a within-subjects experimentally manipulated sleep duration modification paradigm. We also aimed to examine the effect of brain activation patterns on energy consumption during an ad libitum meal.
Achievement of Academic Objectives
We achieved our academic study aims as outlined in the original proposal. First, we met our participant accrual aims and have conducted several of the study analyses as planned. Because the standard for sample sizes in MRI research has increased, we decided to double our sample size and collect data over the full two years of the MEG period. Furthrmore, because our study required stringent inclusion criteria, accruing 60 participatns took the majority of the two years to attain. Therefore, we are currently analyzing the MRI data for this study. We have an initial draft of the first manuscript resulting from this study and it will be submitted for peer-review within the next 3 months (see paper title below).
Jensen, C. D., Kaur, K., Blackburn, R. G., Zaugg, K., Carbine, K. A., Muncy, N. & Kirwan, C. B. (manuscript in preparation) Do social stress and sleep restriction alter neural reponses to food images and caloric consumption in adolescents?
Evaluation of the Mentoring Environment
Mentored students participated in all aspects of the research, including experimental design, data acquisition and analysis, presenting research findings at academic conferences, and preparing study results for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Three of the mentored students completed a course in MRI data acquisition and analysis (Psych 513R) and these three also completed Level 3 Operator certification at the BYU MRI Research Facility, allowing them to conduct MRI scans independently. Moreover, graduate and senior undergraduate students effectively mentored more junior students in MRI research. One of the students who was an undergraduate at the time of this award is currently a doctoral student in psychology at BYU (Kelsey Zaugg) and another (Emily Birch) is currently applying for doctoral programs in clinical psychology. This MEG award has facilitated outstanding training for students in my lab.
List of Mentored Students and Academic Deliverables
Kiran Kaur, Robyn Gentry, Kelsey Zaugg, Kaylie Carbine, Emily Birch, Brenna Leishman
Leishman,B., & Jensen, C. D. (2019, April). Does sleep duration moderate the association between self-control and food consumption in overweight adolescent females? Poster to be presented at the 2019 Society of Pediatric Psychology Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA.
Kaur, K., Barnett, K. A., & Jensen, C. D. (2018, April). Does dietary behavior mediate the association between hedonic hunger and BMI in overweight/obese adolescents? Poster presented at the 2018 Society of Pediatric Psychology Annual Conference, Orlando, FL.
Descriptions of Findings of the Project
As mentioned previously, we are currently analyzing our MRI data. Findings from our adlibitum meal data indicated that sleep restriction significantly increased consumption of total calories and calories from fat compared to habitual sleep. Furthremore, we found that both social stress and sleep restriction led to detriments to self control and, in turn, greater caloric consumption in our adolescent female sample. In summary, our findings suggest that sleepdeprived overweight adolescent females demonstrate greater social stress responsivity and that both sleep restriction and higher social stress are associated with consuming more calories and more dietary fat.
Description of Budget Expenditures
Our budget was primarily used to support undergraduate student wages. We originally budgeted $900 for student conference travel but these students all received travel support from the College of Family, Home and Social Sciences for conference travel so this money was realocated for student wages instead. Costs to conduct neuroimaging represented the second largest expense of the study. Participant incentives were the final study expense.